Monday, August 26, 2019

Qualative Analysis Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Qualative Analysis - Lab Report Example At the end of the practical it was possible to establish the cations present in our unknown sample #19. Qualitative analysis is a method in analytical chemistry which involves the identifying of unknowns in a given solution. It is important in chemistry especially when one is dealing with unknown mixtures to be able to establish the solution properties and the methods of separation if you need to separate. In the general Laboratory set up, qualitative analysis is aimed at getting a deeper understanding of the cations and also learns how to handle them and detect them effectively when in any solution. The main hypothetical question in qualitative analysis is whether a certain cation is present in a given solution. To prove that hypothesis null, then a series of chemical reactions are conducted and the color changes are mainly used to establish their presence. It should be noted that many cations will have similar color changes and so a series of subsequent reactions are used in the detection of a certain cation (Page & Foster 11). In this lab we divided the cations to be characterized into two sub groups, this was done by selective precipitation. The precipitate was then separated physically be centrifuging as it settles out and the supernatant liquid decanted. This was the first step where the large group was separated into smaller groups so that a definitive test can be performed to verify the presence or absence of a specific cation. The cations were classified into two groups according to their ability to dissolve. Group A had ( Bi+3, Fe+3 and Mn+2) while group B had (Al+3, Cr+3 and Sn+4) which were to be used in the two labs. The ions were in a combined unknown solution and they were to be analyzed to establish the cations present. To be sure where any of the cations was present in the solution it was important to run a number of procedures that are described below. In test 1, Mn+2 ions were confirmed present. In the addition of NaBiO3 the color of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Cost method Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Cost method - Essay Example It is crucial for managers to comprehend the merits and demerits of the two systems to satisfy the needs of their business operations. The budget presented entails schedules that raise various concerns leading to the recommendation that the company should switch to the activity-based costing system of accounting. The first concern is the quarterly budget that in my opinion requires further subdivision to generate quarters. Mainly, cycling takes place in temperate weather conditions. Buying materials for bicycle production for the start of sales hikes demand therefore, requires the producer to incur a quarter before the demand. Another concern regards accounts that remain uncollectable. The master budget for the company is not specific it its cash budget line. It closely refers to the uncollectable receivables. Variable factors in this context emanate from economic features among them limited sponsorship and thus resulting in wrong accounts (Gazely & Lambert, 2006). From the budget, the company is setting aside a budget for 140 bikes inclusive of labour costs. It is appropriate to cut down on the level of production of extra parts in the inventory. The viability of any business can be measured by how the company effectively utilizes its resources while plummeting unnecessary costs hence Competition Bikes Inc. should strive to avert extra discretionary costs. The method of distributing manufacturing overhead by activity-based costing (ABC) to products is efficient compared to the traditional method of costing. Precisely, activity-based costing assigns the right percentage of resources to particular products. While monitoring and allocating organizational costs to products and objects, activity-based costing remains a more sophisticated and logical method as opposed to the traditional costing system (Bragg, 2001). It is possible to distribute

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Effects of Work Choices Act on Rio Tinto Case Study

Effects of Work Choices Act on Rio Tinto - Case Study Example Trade unions will find it more difficult to service their existing members, recruit new members and organize industrial action. This legislation also clearly shifts the balance of the power in the employment relationship more towards the employer. This will be most obvious in businesses with 100 employees or less, where employers will have the right to dismiss workers almost at will. Most importantly, if offered an AWA, the only real alternative for many employees will be to quit. This entails the creation of the Australian Fair Pay Commission which will be responsible for establishing and varying the federal minimum wage, all other wages specified in awards, and casual pay loadings. The abolition of the no-disadvantage test will be implemented. Its replacement by the Australian Fair Pay and Conditions Standard covering just five basic conditions: award rates of pay, maximum ordinary hours of work, annual leave, personal and carers leave, and parental leave. These five conditions will be the only award conditions which cannot be varied or excluded in a workplace agreement. Further, in the event of the termination of an agreement it is these five minimum conditions that the parties fall back to. There are major changes in the nature and operation of federal awards. With the exception of the five minimum conditions, workplace agreements will replace all award conditions that otherwise would apply to the workers covered by these agreements. Australian Workplace Agreements, or AWAs will also take precedence over collective agreements, even if those collective agreements are currently in operation. A much simpler approval process for agreements, with all agreements, both collective and individual, needs only to be lodged with the Office of the Employment Advocate (OEA) to take effect. There are tighter rules governing rights of entry by trade unions to workplaces. POSITIVE OPTIONS BY RIO TINTO MANAGEMENT The management can fire employees who are members of the Construction, Forestry Mining and Energy Union (CFMEU) and replace them with non-union workers and immigrant workers. The Management can establish a black list of critical, unproductive or non-performing workers and offer them AWAs. If they refuse it, management can ask them to resign immediately.The Management can enforce a strike ban on the labor union hence guaranteeing industrial peace. If the workers resort to strike, the company can lay off the workers with the reason that they have affected the economy by crippling the company. The Company can request the Labor Minister to declare the strike as illegal. The company can check the collective agreements of the different subsidiaries and decide not to re-negotiate a new agreement with these unions. The company can just offer individual AWAs to the workers. The Management can terminate personnel with medical problems, numerous absences and recurrent poor work performance. AREAS OF OPPORTUNITIES IN LABOR MANAGEMENT The strong anti-union stance of Work Choices Act will enable Rio Tinto Mining to derive financial benefits from the utilization of labor resources. (Nigel Munro) Corporate Affairs

Friday, August 23, 2019

Russian Imperial Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Russian Imperial Culture - Essay Example Imperialism is an exploitative system of administration in which certain group comes to a territory and exploits the people of their wealth. Fundamentally, however, monopoly and finance capitalism are logical developments from free, competitive capitalism; political imperialism is a logical development of monopoly capitalism; war is a logical development of imperialism. Wars were therefore very important aspects of imperial Russian culture. The Russian state persistently battled against Nogai-Horde and Crimean khanat which were successors of the Golden Horde. Russians captured by nomads were sold on Crimean slave markets. In 1571 the Crimean khan Devlet-Girei, with a horde of 120 thousand horsemen, devastated Moscow. Annually thousands of Russians became victims of attacks by nomads. Tens of thousands of soldiers protected the southern borderland - a heavy burden for the state which slowed its social and economic development. In the beginning of the 16th century the Russian state set the national goal to return all Russian territories lost as a result of the Mongolian invasion and to protect the borderland against attacks of hordes. The noblemen, receiving a manor from the sovereign, were obliged to serve in the army. The manor system became a basis for the nobiliary horse army. Russians emraced nobility as a... In 1648 the Cossack Semyon Dezhnev discovered the strait between America and Asia. The greater and more expansive Russian Empire was born. Muscovite control of the nascent nation continued after the Polish intervention. Peter the Great, brought ideas and culture from Western Europe to a severely underdeveloped Russia. Catherine the Great, enhanced this effort, establishing Russia not just as an Asian power, but on an equal footing with Britain, France, and Germany in Europe. She enlarged the Russian empire by the Partitions of Poland. Russia had now taken territories with the ethnic Belarus and Ukrainian population, earlier parts of the medieval Kievan Rus'. As a result of the victorious Russian-Turkish wars, Russia's borders expanded to the Black Sea and Russia set her goal on the protection of Balkan Christians against a Turkish yoke. Russia and the Georgian Kingdom (which was almost totally devastated by Persian and Turkish invasions) signed the treaty of Georgievsk according to which Georgia received the protection of Russia. After Peter the Great, Russia emerged as a major European power. Examples of its post-Peter European involvement includes the War of Polish Succession and the Seven Years War. These wars were necessary to preserve the Russian empire and preserve the sovereignity of the Russian people. Each well-developed national mythology has produced what can be called the culture of the ordinary. It has to do with everyday life of men and women over a period of time. It could be said that the culture of imperial Russia was based on wars and economic exploitation. Museums could capture the dress (uniform), the weaponry and

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Mission Statement Essay Example for Free

The Mission Statement Essay In this case study will discuss the strengths, weakness, opportunity’s and threats of the Vertu Nokia mobile phone. How well the company did and what the company will do to be completive in today’s changing world of mobile phones. Synopsis of the Situation The situation of the Vertu is how the company can survive in today’s world of technology changes. Nokia manufactures a unique luxury mobile phone by using precious materials such as diamonds, sapphires, titanium and exotic leather for phone production. Key Issues Nokia has a unique product and although it does well it has been shrinking in the market shares. Nokia hired Stephen Elop as the new CEO was given the task of revamping Nokia’s business and save it. Define the Problem The problem is the drop in share price. The problem faced in the lack of ability to not only produce new products but sustain current innovations within the mobile arena. Another issue is the use of an unproven operating system before understand the effects of a fall that could occur. There is also not a set purpose of the change nor what the company can do for its shareholders. Alternative Solutions The solution present was to phase out the outdated operating system and adopt Microsoft’s Window phone as its principal smartphone strategy. The transition from Symbian which was the outdated operating system to Windows Phone was a major move for Nokia and it could take it further by building a successful Third Ecosystem with Microsoft. Selected Solution to the Problem Due to rapid economic growth in emerging markets like China and India, the Asia-Pacific became the fastest growing region for luxury mobile phones. With new developments the luxury mobile phone market looked promising and attracted new market entrants such as Mobiado, GoldVish and GRESSO. Other well established luxury brands, including Christian Dior, Tag Heuer, Versace and Ulysse Nardin also joined the luxury mobile industry through brand extension initiatives with handset manufactures. Implementation In 2005 Nokia branded 8800 series and a year later a special edition of the Nokia 8800 was introduced. These new editions included ultra-lightweight carbon fibre and 24 carat gold plated versions. Despite these products introductions Nokia continued to empower its Vertu subsidiary to take the lead in penetrating the high end luxury mobile

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Improving Organizational Retention Essay Example for Free

Improving Organizational Retention Essay As an independent consultant hired to improve retention issues at JC’s Casino concerning dealers and housekeeping I will look at this as two separate entities. The casino owner needs the quickest fix possible and I must look at the area first causing the most issues with the customers. Though there is a fast turnover of dealers there are enough employees to cover this area for the time being. The first issue is the housekeeping staff because it is causing customers to have to wait on their rooms until six in the evening. This can cause loss of revenue by customers moving to other casino hotels where they can check in at a reasonable time and this in turn could cause loss of revenue at the gambling tables. The first person I will meet with is the HR director, Tom Sneed, to see how the company process of hiring is done and if there is a job analysis directive with requirements and training procedures in place. Tom Sneed said applicants are sent through the local unemployment office, and apply through newspaper ads. The job application is a standard application with previous jobs, history, and education. The applications are passed to Andrew Keen for approval or disapproval. There is a job analysis in place for requirements from bending and lifting, to chemicals used in the cleaning process, and training videos. Each floor has carts set up to cover all the required products for each room; this is checked by the director of housekeeping each day and refilled as needed. All products are on carts, including boxes of gloves for protection for the housekeepers. As the director of housekeeping, Andrew Keen is responsible for staffing, scheduling the employees, keeping the housekeeping budget in check, keeping up with new policies, and initiating the new policies (Education Portal, 2012). As there has been a tremendous staffing issue with absenteeism and high turnovers, we need to see where the shortcomings are in this department. Keen does not think there are any issues within the company for the position, but that it is just hard to find good help. The hotel consists of 15 floors with 20 rooms on each floor except the top floor, which has eight suites. Each floor has two housekeepers per floor with each employee required to clean up to 10 rooms a day on his or her shifts if the hotel is full. The top floor employees are required to clean up to four suites a day on their shift. I introduce myself to the employees who are working and ask for a list of those who are not in for the day. I call all the employees off for the day to come in and request the employees who are at work to stay after for a meeting when they are done with their shift. I am setting up food trays and drinks from the kitchen plus paying them for the time at the meeting. I start out the meeting by explaining who I am, letting them know that any comments made to me about their dissatisfaction in the job is confidential. They will fill out a questionnaire on why they think there is such a huge turnover of employees in housekeeping, what they see as a way to fix it, and any dissatisfaction with the job. I let them know that the questionnaires are for my eyes only and I will assemble a list of issues myself, which I will take to the director of housekeeping and possibly on up the ladder to the owner. Occupational Stressors and Job Satisfaction The immediate items I notice from the questionnaires are extreme dissatisfaction with their supervisor Keehn. The list includes everything from watering down the cleaning supplies so much it does not clean or sanitize properly, to shortages on sheets and towels to scheduling issues. The employees believe that Keehn is trying to keep under budget to make him-self look good. Scheduling issues are not enough hours and refusing to work with anyone on scheduling needs. The 22 employees who were at the meeting said they get into trouble by Keehn if he sees them talking to each other or trying to help someone else get his or her rooms done. Job control stressors can be lack of control over your work, lack of recognition for work done, harassment, lack of respect from supervisors, and isolation from fellow employees to name a few (CWA, 2009). Each of these factors is all stressors with the housekeeping staff. Over all there is very little job satisfaction with the company because of all the negative issues. Those who are here would leave if they found another job with better scheduling and a better supervisor. Several of the employees suggested Rhonda Jordan should be the director of housekeeping. She has been here longer than anyone, knows the ins and outs of the company, always has a kind word, and has good communication skills. Many of the employees go to her for help instead of Keehn. I go back to HR with Tom Sneed and discuss with him the issue of the dealers quitting and look over the exit interviews on those who bothered to do one before they left. Mr. Sneed said that some of the dealers in the step-sons Joe’s pit have walked out during their breaks because of his attitude. He has a tendency to belittle the dealers and make the customers angrier instead of defusing a bad situation. His paperwork is haphazard and the accounting office is always calling him in to explain his paperwork to them. Two Work Motivation Theories The issues with the housekeepers and the dealers both stem from issues with their immediate supervisors. Using the goal-setting theory and reinforcement theory I am in hopes that the casino president will put into effect immediately the outline I have to present to him. The foremost and most important fix needs to be the housekeeping staff so that customers can check in at the normal industry standard time of three in the afternoon instead of six. After talking to Keehn and his denials of the accusations by his underlings and not taking any responsibility for any part of the housekeeping staff leaving, I will suggest that Andrew Keehn be fired and the position offered to Rhonda Jordan, who is an intelligent, warm, and job-oriented person. The employees all look up to her and respect her. Rhonda and I discussed in detail ways to keep the employees they do have and ways to hire and keep new employees. Goal setting will be to replace Keehn with Ms. Jordan, to make sure all cleaning products are up to standard market mixes, to have each cart filled for what each person needs and ready each morning, and to even out scheduling with fairness to each employee. New procedures need to be set in place, employee teamwork will be applauded, and all employees will help each other every day until all can go home at the same time, basically no employee left behind. To further enhance the housekeeping staff to come to work on their scheduled times we will offer a reinforcement of a free meal for a family of four in the hotel restaurant for every 30 days of scheduling each person does not call in and arrives at work on time. Until enough staff is hired all staff employees on the payroll will get an incentive of paid hours off for each room past 10 they clean during a workday. We want the employees here to feel as if they are important to the company by reinforcing the hard work they do. After talking to Joe, the pit boss, he knows that he is not cut out for the job he is in. He has admitted the stress of all the paperwork and the constant spotlight put on him by the customers and dealers is just not for him. He has agreed to go to his stepfather and tell him that he is not satisfied with the position and wants to move to head of security because the head of security is retiring in 30 days. For the employees under Joe who have stayed through his supervising an incentive check of 100 hundred dollars for each month they have been here will be given to them as a thank you and reinforcement to them as employees that they are valued. A new supervisor will be found and put into the position with the abilities to get the job done with good and appropriate communication skills. As a further reinforcement to let employees know they are valued, an employee suggestion box will be hung by the time clock. Counterproductive Employee Behavior The employee behavior is walking out on-the-job, calling in to work, and general turnover of employees which cost time and money to retrain new employees. The outline above will help with employee behavior by putting new supervisors in the positions needed that can act professional, fairly, and treat the employees with respect. Giving the employees incentives will also help with keeping the employees here until all positions and staff are put into place. Conclusion Common job facets include pay, supervision, job conditions, and communication to name a few (Spector, 2012). With this as a prelim, JC’s Casino hopes to fix the issues that are making the employees leave the job by getting better supervisors who are open to ideas from the employees, who show respect to the employees and are not short on praise when employees do a good job. Taking away some of the stressors of the job should help with job retention.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Indias Agricultural Sector: An Analysis

Indias Agricultural Sector: An Analysis Agriculture Sector Submitted by   Introduction to Agriculture sector Agriculture sector from an Indian Economic perspective constitute majorly the following four such as: Food-crops and oilseeds, Fiber, plantation crops, fruits and vegetables. As per the 2013 RBI statistics Indian agriculture sector contributed 11.36% of real GDP. This sector is also the highest employer in the country employing approximately 60% of the population. In H1 2013-2014 Agriculture sector of India recorded growth rate of 3.4% [1] and this is higher by a margin of 0.8% during H1 2012-13. The primary reasoning was attributed to a good and a normal monsoon during the year. This spike in the growth of the agricultural sector contributed to a better growth rate for the GDP of 4.6 considering it was a sluggish period for all other sectors including services and manufacturing. Eventhough being one of the oldest sector, Agricultural sector is still contributing phenomenally to the GDP growth of the country. So, in this report an attempt is made to analyse salient aspects of the Agriculture sector from economic perspective, government policy perspective and other items that constitute the growth of the sector. Also, the report studies the major issues that’s being faced by the facing and potential way to resolve them is being brought out. Key factors affecting the performance of Agriculture sector: Climatic factors: Monsoons, soil degradation, water availability, floods and droughts. Policy factors: Government policies related to credit availability, support prices, crop specific programmes, ensuring availability of markets for the produce. Market factors: Pricing, integration with downstream consumers, transparency. Macro-economic factors: Supply and demand, change in consumption patterns. Technology factors: Availability of farming technology, awareness of the available technology among the farmers, incentives to adopt modern technology, educating farmers about the benefits of using technology. Global factors: Export and import policies, trade restrictions. Section IV Agriclutural Policies, Ramesh V V Issues faced by Indian Agriculture sector Unequal growth of Agriculture sector at different areas of India Dependence on seasonal rainfall :The performance of the sector is highly dependent on the seasonal rainfall India receives during the monsoon season. Decrease in land availability due to population growth and industrial sector growth Non availability of farm labourers Low level of mechanisation of the sector yielding lower productivity Unavailability of logistics affecting the returns from the sector Traditional cultivation methods: Restrained access to finance: Lack of facilities for storage of the food grains: Fragmentation of land Low quality seeds: Using better quality seeds can improve the yield by 40%, adoption of Bt seeds can also increase the yield, however higher cost of seeds and activism are hindrances to adopt Bt seeds widely. Unbalanced fertilizer utilization: It is one of the main reason for the stagnation of the yield, depletion of soil fertility and pollution of water bodies. Lacklustre government policies on fertilizer subsidies are one of the reasons for unbalanced use of Nitrogen based fertilizers Cropping Patterns: Sub-optimal crop pattern leads to low rates of profits. Geographical conditions vary and accordingly suitable crop patterns should be adopted, however farmers follow traditional practices which leads to lower profits. Policies and Schemes towards Agriculture: The Department of Agriculture Cooperation, Government of India, has been implementing various schemes and programmes for the benefit of farmers through State Governments. The Guidelines and other details of various programmes and schemes have been made available in their departmental scheme guidelines. Relevant details on the type and extent of benefits for different components promoted under various schemes are mentioned here. For simple understanding of subsidies and eligibility criteria of the same a handbook has also been constructed by the department. It has been prepared by categorizing various activities in 11 different themes such as, Soil Health, Soil Conservation Fertilizers, Seeds, Irrigation, Training Extension for Farmers, Mechanization Technology, Agricultural Credit, Agricultural Insurance, Plant Protection, Horticulture, Agricultural Marketing and Integrated Farming. Besides this, broad suggestions on practical aspects of each of these themes have also been includ ed. Schemes such as Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (subject to qualifying criteria for the States), National e-Governance Plan-Agriculture, National Mission on Agricultural Extension Technology Etc have nation-wide coverage.A few other schemes such as National Food Security Mission, Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH), National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP), Cotton Technology Mission, Jute and Mesta Technology and Bringing Green Revolution to Eastern India (BGREI) have Crop/ Area / District wise applicability. The expert committee has come up an estimate of around 11172 crores in the next ten years for infrastructure development for agriculture marketing as of 2008 and has come up with some reforms in the Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee Act, (APMC)act, details from NABARD website Subsidies are helpful to farmers in India as nearly 11% of farmers have land but not have sufficient funding to irrigate the land. Three main types of financing are required for agriculture sector. i.e., Short term, Medium term Long term finance. Subsidies in an agriculturally oriented developing economy like India helps increase the productivity of the farmers. Institutionalized credit provisioning: Credit raised by farmers from Non-institutional lenders, from 95% in 1951 to 40% in 2002, India has come a long way in providing sustainable credit access to the farmers. Non-institutional lenders levy a high rate of interest and historically have manipulated the farmers, which led to poverty and its side effects like illiteracy. Analysis on the Agricultural Sector Demand vs Supply: The agricultural sector in India is doing pretty good job to meet the domestic demand and also exporting food grains in certain categories. The total demand for Y2010 was 228Mt and the total supply was 270Mt. Not only in 2010, if you see the trend for the past 5 years before 2010, the supply more than demand. This clearly tells us India is a food surplus country and there is no real pressure on the demand-supply process. The supply is mainly increasing because of better and modern farming technique and high productivity per hectare. Storage facilities have improved over the last 2 decades and at affordable prices are helping the farmers to preserve the crop thru the year. There is still a lot of scope for improvement for our agro output storage facilities. Our storage facilities are not on par with other developed countries and our farmers end up with a lot of spoiled food grains. Table: Agro Production –Demand in INDIA between 2005 and 2011 (All Figures in Metric Tons) Source: Focus on Agriculture- Union Budget 2014. Government has proposed a technology driven green revolution and in this specifically protein revolution had more focus this year. Below par expectation of monsoon and its obvious impact on Agriculture was certainly considered this year. Keeping this in mind Government has proposed aRs.1,000 crore outlay for a new scheme named, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana, which will address sufficient irrigation facilities and mitigate some risk. To address the problem of price volatility, fund called Price Stabilization fund amounting to 500 crores was allocated. Agriculture credit target was set to 8lakh crores. Interest subvention for timely repayment of loans at 3% subvention has also been included against the current 7% rate. Rural infrastructure fund of 25000 crores was also institutionalized. Soil health is one major factor which is linked to productivity. In this regard, 100 crore project scheme was included which delivers every farmer a soil health card. In this mission, an additional 56 crores towards mobile soil testing laboratories was proposed. Agriculture research institutions to come up in Assam and Jharkand with an initial investment of 100 crores and an additional allocation of 200 crores for Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan and telangana and Haryana for Agriculture and horticulture institutions respectively was also proposed. Kisan TV, a dedicated channelon various aspects of agriculture. Bhoomi Heen Kisan scheme, institutionalized through NABARD for landless farmers towards guarantee for finance was proposed. Funds will cater to around 5 lac farming groups who will practice joint farming. Warehouse infrastructure fund of 5000 crores was allocated to address wastage loss in supply chain. Existing APMC, will be re-oriented in close association with state governments which in potential must take care of markets and introduce reforms for farmers. One thing that was criticized was the denial of a policy of minimum price Scheme, MPS which figured in the previous government’s budget. Impact of Fiscal Policies on Agricultural Sector Most Gov.’s that came to power in India have implemented pro-agricultural policies and have given a lot of sops and benefits to this sector. Though the outlook might seem healthy, the short term inconsistent policies have made the agricultural sector unproductive and unsustainable. If the situation continues like this, experts believe that Indian would become a net food gain importer in the next 20-30 years of time. Subsidy Input subsidies are a major part of the policy in Agricultural sector in India. The major subsidies are subsidies on electricity used in farming subsidy in fertilizer prices subsidy in seed purchase Indian agricultural sector is more dependent on input subsidies than any other major emerging countries. The recent Gov. order passed by the Chief Min of the newly farmed Andhra state to waive off all the agro loans taken by its farmers is an example of this Input subsidy and illustrates how heavily this is impacting the Agro sector. The subsidy on fertilisers has been increased to 67% in 2010 from 41% in 2004. This steep subsidy was possible because Gov. kept the nominal fertilizer prices unchanged in spite of high inflation and allowed real subsidized fertilizer prices to fall. The total Gov, input subsidy stood at 9.6% of the total Agro sector output. Among all the subsidies fertilzer subsidy amounts to 11 Billion dollars out of the total 60 Billion subsidy provided by GOI. This also plays a key role in the increase in non plan expenditure and which in turn increases the fisical deficit. The input subsidies have also produced some unintended side effects like over utilization of land, soil degradation, nutrient imbalance of soil and reduction in ground water level. Minimum Support Price The Govt had setup the Commission of Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) to define the minimum support price for almost all the major crops. The intention is to help the farmers but it interferes with the demand and supply. Tax Subsidies Indirect taxes for farm output is almost nil. Inflation The GOI expansionary policies and fiscical stimulus in 2009-10 has resulted in increase in inflation. This has resulted in the increase in cost of the farm labour and non subsidized farm equipment procurement. This has put pressure on the margins of the farmers. Restriction on Exports/Imports Whenver the supply was lower than demand for a particular crop happens i.e in supply shock scenario Govt generally tends to look to restricy exports. This has been an usual pattern with recent incident when the prices of onion and sugar increased as a result of lower production and the got wa quick to restrict the exports of these commodities Impact of Monetary Policies on Agricultural Sector Agricultural loans are available for various farming related activities. Farmers may apply for loans to purchase inputs for the cultivation of food grain crops as well as for horticulture, aquaculture, animal husbandry, floriculture and sericulture businesses. There are also certain special loans made available by many public sector banks and co-operative agriculture banks to finance the purchase of agricultural machinery such as tractors, harvesters and trucks. Construction of biogas plants and irrigation systems as well as the purchase of agricultural land can also be financed through different types of agricultural finance. NABARD offers a Kisan Credit Card Scheme and crop loans under the Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojana. Kisan Credit Card Scheme helps farmers raise short-term funds for agriculture and other farm-based activities, on an on-going basis, with very flexible and friendly repayment terms. It also offers an agricultural loan for development of agriculture related industries, purchase of machinery and other agricultural purposes. Interest Rates Conclusion The agriculture community must be weaned off the subsidies gradually once sufficient development is made so as to increase the sustainability of Indian agriculture by providing them the right price for the cultivated produce, introducing highly effective storage facilities, providing necessary training to the farmers regarding use of technology and equipment thereby reducing wastage considerably and enhancing the sector as a whole. Agricultural subsidies can be a blunt instrument that can impede progress and slow down economic growth if theyre implemented without heed to the situation and specific date of expiry. Agriculture and industry has shown remarkable vigour and dynamism in contributing to a healthy growth in exports in the recent past. India’s food security depends on producing cereal crops, as well as increasing its production of fruits, vegetables and milk to meet the demands of a growing population with rising incomes. Policy makers will thus need to initiate and/or conclude policy actions and public programs to shift the sector away from the existing policy and institutional regime that appears to be no longer viable and build a solid foundation for a much more productive, internationally competitive, and diversified agricultural sector. References